Locating files with the find command

Linux Systems Guides
  • Locating files using the find command

    The find command is a powerful utility that allows the user to find files located in the file system via criteria such as the file name, when file was last accessed, when the file status was last changed, the file’s permissions, owner, group, size.


    Find a file “foo.bar” that exists somewhere in the file system

    find / -name foo.bar -print

    On most platforms the -print is optional, however, on some systems nothing will be output without it. Without specifications find searches recursively through all directories.


    Find a file without searching network or mounted file systems

    find / -name foo.bar -print -xdev

    This is useful if you have network drives that you know the file would not be located on. “-mount” does the same thing as “-xdev” for compatibility with other versions of find.


    Find a file without showing “Permission Denied” messages

    find / -name foo.bar -print 2>/dev/null

    When find tries to search a directory or file that you do not have permission to read the message “Permission Denied” will be output to the screen. The 2>/dev/null option sends these messages to /dev/null so that the found files are easily viewed.


    Find a file, who’s name ends with .bar, within the current directory and only search 2 directories deep

    find . -name *.bar -maxdepth 2 -print


    Search directories “./dir1” and “./dir2” for a file "foo.bar

    find ./dir1 ./dir2 -name foo.bar -print


    Search for files that are owned by the user “skippie”

    find /some/directory -user skippie -print

    The files output will belong to the user “skippie”. Similar criteria are -uid to search for a user by their numerical id, -group to search by a group name, and -gid to search by a group id number.


    Find a file that is a certain type. “-type l” searches for symbolic links

    find /any/directory -type l -print


    Several types of files can be searched for: Several types of files can be searched for:

    • b block (buffered) special

    • c character (unbuffered) special

    • d directory

    • p named pipe (FIFO)

    • f regular file

    • l symbolic link

    • s socket


    Search for directories that contain the phrase “foo” but do not end in “.bar”

    find . -name '*foo*' ! -name '*.bar' -type d -print

    The “!” allows you to exclude results that contain the phrases following it.

    find becomes extremely useful when combined with other commands. One such combination would be using find and grep together.

    find ~/documents -type f -name '*.txt' \ -exec grep -s DOGS {} \; -print

FreeBSD Notes
  • rickR

    Remove old kernel images that are cluttering the system

    zstd-no-space-error.png

    Most of these errors are due to low or not enough space left in the root partition.

    If you are using a Debian flavor:

    sudo apt-get autoremove --purge

    zstd-error.png

    Inform grub whenever an old kernel is removed:

    update grub

    update-grub.png

    Remove the un-used kernel config files:

    These will be the files pre cursed as ‘rc’ where installed kernels use ‘ii’

    … As well as files no longer used or required due to dependencies

    This command will detect, print, and remove left over cruft from previously installed packages or scripts, that have been removed or updated.

    sudo dpkg --purge $(dpkg -l | awk '/^rc/{print $2}')

    purge.png

    You can re-run the following to view the installed kernel(s):

    dpkg --list | grep linux-image

    installed-kernels.png

    read more

  • rickR

    To list all files in current directory including dot files (hidden files or directories), as well as print permissions :

    ls -la
    read more

  • rickR
    Install Ruby on Debian

    Install rbenv

    sudo apt install rbenv

    Then initialize the environment:

    rbenv init

    rbenv-init.png

    nano ~/.bashrc

    Type or paste the output above, Ctrl +x to save

    Apply:

    source .bashrc

    Install ruby-build

    Install git:

    sudo apt install git

    install-git.png

    mkdir -p "$(rbenv root)"/plugins

    Clone to local:

    git clone https://github.com/rbenv/ruby-build.git "$(rbenv root)"/plugins/ruby-build

    clone-ruby.png

    curl -fsSL https://github.com/rbenv/rbenv-installer/raw/main/bin/rbenv-doctor | bash

    ruby-doctor.png

    Now install Ruby:

    print ruby versions available

    rbenv install --list

    rb-list.png

    Install the latest version unless you have a reason otherwise:

    rbenv install 3.3.0

    On this system there was an error compiling at this point with fiddle, as well as psych: ruby-failed.png

    Therefore manually installing the following filled dependencies

    sudo apt install libtool sudo apt install libffi-dev

    rb-compile.png

    rbenv global 3.3.0

    print installed ruby version

    ruby -v

    ruby-version-installed.png

    read more

  • rickR

    Re: Set script to executable

    755 - Owner has all permissions, and Group and Other can read and execute 700 - Owner has all permissions 644 - Owner can read and write, and Group and Other can read 600 - Owner can read and write 775 - Owner can read and write, and Group and Other can read 770 - Owner and Group have all, and Other can read and execute 750 - Owner has all permissions, and Group can read and execute 664 - Owner and Group can read and write, and Other can just read 660 - Owner and Group can read and write 640 - Owner can read and write, and Group can read
    read more

  • rickR

    Re: Find or Locate a file or extension command line

    Install locate command linux: Use your sudo command!

    apt install mlocate

    OR:

    apt-get install mlocate

    OR:

    yum install mlocate

    Update the database:

    updatedb

    Depending on the size of the complete filesystem this could take a few minutes

    After the database has been populated:

    locate mariadb

    Where mariadb is the word your looking for

    read more