Burn ISO to cd/DVD/BD linux command line

Linux Systems Guides
  • There are still those times when {place whatever issue or project here} will require burning optical media, even a CD if you enjoy toying around with older, even ancient hardware.

    That said there are many GUI programs which can accomplish this. However that’s not always viable, or desired. Especially when you care more about the command line and keeping your brain from going sedentary, by constantly clicking a button and having something done for you. /snarky

    In this instance I’ll burn an ISO image of hdat2 to a cd from the command line using wodim on Debian.

    Install wodim:

    sudo apt-get install wodim

    Burn ISO to a cd:

    Find the drive name in which you will use to write the image: You can have a quick look at how to burn an ISO to USB which contains the same basic procedure for locating storage devices locally. Or continue on.

    Locate the device which you intend to use to burn by using the command:


    In this case the output is as follows:

    rick@deb:~$ lsblk
    NAME                        MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE   MOUNTPOINT
    sda                           8:0    0 465.8G  0 disk   
    └─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume0    254:0    0 931.5G  0 dmraid 
      ├─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume01 254:1    0 893.8G  0 dmraid /
      └─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume05 254:2    0  37.7G  0 dmraid 
    sdb                           8:16   0 465.8G  0 disk   
    └─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume0    254:0    0 931.5G  0 dmraid 
      ├─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume01 254:1    0 893.8G  0 dmraid /
      └─isw_ccheigfjba_Volume05 254:2    0  37.7G  0 dmraid 
    sdc                           8:32   0     2T  0 disk 

    This shows two disks (sda & sdb) in raid form, as well as the optical device we will use (SDC)

    Next, Navigate to the directory of the ISO (not required but simplifies the command) many times in the downloads directory.

    Now we are ready to burn the ISO to cd.

    Type the following in command line:

    wodim -v dev=/dev/sr0 -eject -sao hdat2cd_51.iso

    Here is the output after hitting return:

    TOC Type: 1 = CD-ROM
    scsidev: '/dev/sr0'
    devname: '/dev/sr0'
    scsibus: -2 target: -2 lun: -2
    Linux sg driver version: 3.5.27
    Wodim version: 1.1.11
    SCSI buffer size: 64512
    Device type    : Removable CD-ROM
    Version        : 0
    Response Format: 3
    Capabilities   : 
    Vendor_info    : 'ATAPI   '
    Identification : 'iHAS324   A     '
    Revision       : 'BL1A'
    Device seems to be: Generic mmc2 DVD-R/DVD-RW.
    Current: 0x000A (CD-RW)
    Profile: 0x002B (DVD+R/DL) 
    Profile: 0x001B (DVD+R) 
    Profile: 0x001A (DVD+RW) 
    Profile: 0x0016 (DVD-R/DL layer jump recording) 
    Profile: 0x0015 (DVD-R/DL sequential recording) 
    Profile: 0x0014 (DVD-RW sequential recording) 
    Profile: 0x0013 (DVD-RW restricted overwrite) 
    Profile: 0x0012 (DVD-RAM) 
    Profile: 0x0011 (DVD-R sequential recording) 
    Profile: 0x0010 (DVD-ROM) 
    Profile: 0x000A (CD-RW) (current)
    Profile: 0x0009 (CD-R) 
    Profile: 0x0008 (CD-ROM) 
    Profile: 0x0002 (Removable disk) 
    Using generic SCSI-3/mmc   CD-R/CD-RW driver (mmc_cdr).
    Supported modes: TAO PACKET SAO SAO/R96P SAO/R96R RAW/R16 RAW/R96P RAW/R96R
    Drive buf size : 1275648 = 1245 KB
    Beginning DMA speed test. Set CDR_NODMATEST environment variable if device
    communication breaks or freezes immediately after that.
    FIFO size      : 12582912 = 12288 KB
    Track 01: data    13 MB        
    Total size:       15 MB (01:34.97) = 7123 sectors
    Lout start:       16 MB (01:36/73) = 7123 sectors
    Current Secsize: 2048
    ATIP info from disk:
      Indicated writing power: 3
      Reference speed: 6
      Is not unrestricted
      Is erasable
      Disk sub type: High speed Rewritable (CAV) media (1)
      ATIP start of lead in:  -11745 (97:25/30)
      ATIP start of lead out: 359848 (79:59/73)
      1T speed low:  4 1T speed high: 10
      2T speed low:  4 2T speed high:  0 (reserved val  6)
      power mult factor: 1 5
      recommended erase/write power: 5
      A1 values: 24 1A D8
      A2 values: 26 B2 4A
    Disk type:    Phase change
    Manuf. index: 40
    Manufacturer: INFODISC Technology Co., Ltd.
    Blocks total: 359848 Blocks current: 359848 Blocks remaining: 352725
    Forcespeed is OFF.
    Speed set to 1765 KB/s
    Starting to write CD/DVD at speed  10.0 in real SAO mode for single session.
    Last chance to quit, starting real write in    0 seconds. Operation starts.
    Waiting for reader process to fill input buffer ... input buffer ready.
    Performing OPC...
    Sending CUE sheet...
    Writing pregap for track 1 at -150
    Starting new track at sector: 0
    Track 01:   13 of   13 MB written (fifo 100%) [buf 100%]  10.6x.
    Track 01: Total bytes read/written: 14587904/14587904 (7123 sectors).
    Writing  time:   27.528s
    Average write speed   3.9x.
    Min drive buffer fill was 100%
    Fixating time:   17.593s
    BURN-Free was never needed.
    wodim: fifo had 230 puts and 230 gets.
    wodim: fifo was 0 times empty and 30 times full, min fill was 96%.

    As you can see, the -v flag (verbose) allows us to get a bit more data as the process is happening. Of course this particular image was only ~15MB, so the time was very short, larger images will of course take much longer.

    The burner door will open when the process is complete.

    To burn a DVD via command line : We’ll use a script called growisofs:

    sudo apt-get install growisofs

    Follow the same procedure to locate the proper device using the command:


    Move to the directory the ISO is located, and type:

    growisofs -dvd-compat -Z /dev/sr0=hdat2cd_51.iso


  • rickR

    Re: Set script to executable

    755 - Owner has all permissions, and Group and Other can read and execute 700 - Owner has all permissions 644 - Owner can read and write, and Group and Other can read 600 - Owner can read and write 775 - Owner can read and write, and Group and Other can read 770 - Owner and Group have all, and Other can read and execute 750 - Owner has all permissions, and Group can read and execute 664 - Owner and Group can read and write, and Other can just read 660 - Owner and Group can read and write 640 - Owner can read and write, and Group can read
    read more

  • rickR

    Re: Find or Locate a file or extension command line

    Install locate command linux: Use your sudo command!

    apt install mlocate


    apt-get install mlocate


    yum install mlocate

    Update the database:


    Depending on the size of the complete filesystem this could take a few minutes

    After the database has been populated:

    locate mariadb

    Where mariadb is the word your looking for

    read more

  • rickR

    These commands are if you are in the scripts directory! Changing permissions can be done from anywhere in the structure.

    Such as :

    chmod +x /opt/so-elastic-agent_linux_amd64

    Terminal chmod to executable :

    Permissions prior to chmod : chmod.png

    chmod +x so-elastic-agent_linux_amd64

    Permissions following chmod : chmod-x.png

    Then execute :


    Insure you are acting as the user you just gave permissions to (the file owner) or at least have sudo privileges

    To make the script un-executable:

    chmod -x so-elastic-agent_linux_amd64
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  • rickR
    sudo apt install lsb-release ca-certificates curl -y

    GPG key and repo for php 7.4

    sudo curl -sSLo /usr/share/keyrings/deb.sury.org-php.gpg https://packages.sury.org/php/apt.gpg sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/deb.sury.org-php.gpg] https://packages.sury.org/php/ $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/php.list'

    Update the system with the new repository in place

    sudo apt update

    Install the dependencies for OwnCloud (LAMP ect) Certbot, or LetsEncrypt is being installed as well, if you are using this installation in a public domain

    sudo apt install apache2 mariadb-server imagemagick certbot python3-certbot-apache smbclient redis-server unzip rsync libapache2-mod-php7.4 php7.4 php7.4-intl php7.4-mysql php7.4-mbstring php7.4-imagick php7.4-igbinary php7.4-gmp php7.4-bcmath php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-zip php7.4-imap php7.4-ldap php7.4-bz2 php7.4-ssh2 php7.4-common php7.4-json php7.4-xml php7.4-dev php7.4-apcu php7.4-redis libsmbclient-dev php-pear php-phpseclib

    Enable apache2 and then verify it’s status

    sudo systemctl is-enabled apache2 sudo systemctl status apache2

    oc-apache.png Enable MariaDB and verify status

    sudo systemctl is-enabled mariadb sudo systemctl status mariadb

    oc-maria.png Enable Redis and verify status

    sudo systemctl is-enabled redis sudo systemctl status redis


    Configure default php version

    sudo update-alternatives --config php

    oc-php-alternatives.png oc-php-ver.png

    Configure php OwnCloud dependencies

    sudo update-alternatives --set phar /usr/bin/phar7.4 sudo update-alternatives --set phar.phar /usr/bin/phar.phar7.4 sudo update-alternatives --set phpize /usr/bin/phpize7.4 sudo update-alternatives --set php-config /usr/bin/php-config7.4

    Upgrade Pear to OwnCloud4 requirements

    sudo mkdir -p /tmp/pear/cache sudo pear upgrade --force --alldeps http://pear.php.net/get/PEAR-1.10.13


    sudo pear clear-cache sudo pear update-channels sudo pear upgrade --force sudo pear upgrade-all

    Verify Pear version

    pear version


    Configure MariaDB

    sudo mariadb-secure-installation


    Log into MariaDB

    sudo mariadb -u root -p

    Create the OwnCloud database:

    This is where many go wrong, we do not use ‘password’ we replace password, with our own password.

    CREATE DATABASE owncloud;

    We just created a database with the name owncloud

    CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS 'owncloud'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

    We just created a database user called owncloud

    GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON owncloud.* TO 'owncloud'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;

    We just allowed user owncloud, full privileges on database owncloud


    Now verify what we have just done:

    SHOW GRANTS FOR 'owncloud'@'localhost';

    You can see below I named this database ‘oc’ and the ‘oc’ user has privileges on database ‘owncloud’



    wget the OwnCloud source

    cd /var/www wget https://download.owncloud.com/server/stable/owncloud-complete-latest.tar.bz2

    Grab sha256 to verify the download

    wget https://download.owncloud.com/server/stable/owncloud-complete-latest.tar.bz2.sha256

    BEFORE installing, verify if the download of OwnCloud matches what the OwnCloud team wanted you to have, this is important always.

    sudo sha256sum -c owncloud-complete-latest.tar.bz2.sha256 < owncloud-complete-latest.tar.bz2

    Out put should say ‘OK’ if everything matches.

    Change ownership of the directory to www-data user.

    sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/owncloud

    Configure Vhost for OwnCloud

    This will open a new file in 'sites-available and name this file ‘owncloud.conf’

    Change the ServerName and ServerAlias, as well as log file names, to whatever your domain is. There are many ways to do this keep in mind.

    sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/owncloud.conf <VirtualHost *:80> ServerName oc ServerAlias www.oc DocumentRoot /var/www/owncloud ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/oc.io-error.log CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/oc.io-access.log combined Alias /owncloud "/var/www/owncloud/" <Directory /var/www/owncloud/> Options +FollowSymlinks AllowOverride All <IfModule mod_dav.c> Dav off </IfModule> SetEnv HOME /var/www/owncloud SetEnv HTTP_HOME /var/www/owncloud </Directory> </VirtualHost>

    Enable and verify the owncloud vhost

    sudo a2ensite owncloud.conf sudo apachectl configtest


    Now install OwnCloud

    Change the database name, user, and password to whatever you named the OwnCloud database earlier;

    Change the ‘admin user’ and ‘admin pass’ to whatever you want the new OwnCloud admin account to be.

    sudo -u www-data /var/www/owncloud/occ maintenance:install \ --database "mysql" \ --database-name "owncloud" \ --database-user "owncloud"\ --database-pass "password" \ --admin-user "admin" \ --admin-pass "your new owncloud admin password"

    Edit the OwnCloud config file to add the domain you used earlier in the Apache2 vhost file:

    sudo nano /var/www/owncloud/config/config.php 'trusted_domains' => array ( 0 => 'localhost', 1 => 'whatever your domain is goes here', ),

    Personally I restart the server at this point, which will restart all services. Then visit the domain / IP of your settings and you should see the OwnCloud login page. Use the credentials you setup for the admin user.

    System cron setting:

    sudo crontab -u www-data -e */15 * * * * /usr/bin/php -f /var/www/owncloud/occ system:cron

    Memcache with Redis we installed earlier:

    sudo nano /var/www/owncloud/config/config.php 'filelocking.enabled' => true, 'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\APCu', 'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis', 'redis' => [ 'host' => 'localhost', 'port' => 6379, ],

    Go restart the server again and enjoy!

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  • rickR

    Comment out in=>

    /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/middlewared/plugins/vm/vms.py # elif flags['intel_vmx']: # if vcpus > 1 and flags['unrestricted_guest'] is False: # verrors.add(f'{schema_name}.vcpus', 'Only one Virtual CPU is allowed in this system.') # elif flags['amd_rvi']: # if vcpus > 1 and flags['amd_asids'] is False: # verrors.add( # f'{schema_name}.vcpus', 'Only one virtual CPU is allowed in this system.' # )

    At this point we must comment out each time we update the system.

    read more