ISO from DVD to local file

Linux Systems Guides
  • Make ISO from DVD

    In this case I had an OS install disk which was required to be on a virtual node with no optical drive, so I needed to transfer an image to the server to create a VM

    Find out which device the DVD is:



    sda               8:0    0 465.8G  0 disk 
    ├─sda1            8:1    0     1G  0 part /boot
    └─sda2            8:2    0 464.8G  0 part 
      ├─centos-root 253:0    0    50G  0 lvm  /
      ├─centos-swap 253:1    0  11.8G  0 lvm  [SWAP]
      └─centos-home 253:2    0   403G  0 lvm  /home
    sdb               8:16   1  14.5G  0 disk /mnt
    sr0              11:0    1   4.1G  0 rom  /run/media/rick/CCSA_X64FRE_EN-US_DV5

    Therefore /dev/sr0 is the location , or disk to be made into an ISO

    I prefer simplicity, and sometimes deal with the fallout after the fact, however Ive repeated this countless times with success.

    dd if=/dev/sr0 of=win10.iso

    Where if=Input file and of=output file

    I chill out and do something else while the image is being copied/created, and the final output:

    8555456+0 records in
    8555456+0 records out
    4380393472 bytes (4.4 GB) copied, 331.937 s, 13.2 MB/s


    • 0 Votes
      2 Posts

      Again running smartctl after all is said and done:

      smartctl --all /dev/sda

      ddrescue-smartctl-after-rescue.png ddrescue-smartctl-2.png

      Yet an old drive in itself, I run the wheels off of them, and monitor regularly as anyone should.

    • 0 Votes
      2 Posts

      Here is the Freebsd manpage for the newfs command:

      NEWFS(8) FreeBSD System Manager's Manual NEWFS(8) NAME newfs -- construct a new UFS1/UFS2 file system SYNOPSIS newfs [-EJNUjlnt] [-L volname] [-O filesystem-type] [-S sector-size] [-T disktype] [-a maxcontig] [-b block-size] [-c blocks-per-cylinder-group] [-d max-extent-size] [-e maxbpg] [-f frag-size] [-g avgfilesize] [-h avgfpdir] [-i bytes] [-k held-for-metadata-blocks] [-m free-space] [-o optimization] [-p partition] [-r reserved] [-s size] special DESCRIPTION The newfs utility is used to initialize and clear file systems before first use. The newfs utility builds a file system on the specified spe- cial file. (We often refer to the ``special file'' as the ``disk'', although the special file need not be a physical disk. In fact, it need not even be special.) Typically the defaults are reasonable, however newfs has numerous options to allow the defaults to be selectively over- ridden. The following options define the general layout policies: -E Erase the content of the disk before making the filesystem. The reserved area in front of the superblock (for bootcode) will not be erased. This option is only relevant for flash based storage devices that use wear-leveling algorithms. Erasing may take a long time as it writes to every sector on the disk. -J Enable journaling on the new file system via gjournal. See gjournal(8) for details. -L volname Add a volume label to the new file system. -N Cause the file system parameters to be printed out without really creating the file system. -O filesystem-type Use 1 to specify that a UFS1 format file system be built; use 2 to specify that a UFS2 format file system be built. The default format is UFS2. -T disktype For backward compatibility. -U Enable soft updates on the new file system. -a maxcontig Specify the maximum number of contiguous blocks that will be laid out before forcing a rotational delay. The default value is 16. See tunefs(8) for more details on how to set this option. -b block-size The block size of the file system, in bytes. It must be a power of 2. The default size is 32768 bytes, and the smallest allow- able size is 4096 bytes. The optimal block:fragment ratio is 8:1. Other ratios are possible, but are not recommended, and may produce poor results. -c blocks-per-cylinder-group The number of blocks per cylinder group in a file system. The default is to compute the maximum allowed by the other parame- ters. This value is dependent on a number of other parameters, in particular the block size and the number of bytes per inode. -d max-extent-size The file system may choose to store large files using extents. This parameter specifies the largest extent size that may be used. The default value is the file system blocksize. It is presently limited to a maximum value of 16 times the file system blocksize and a minimum value of the file system blocksize. -e maxbpg Indicate the maximum number of blocks any single file can allo- cate out of a cylinder group before it is forced to begin allo- cating blocks from another cylinder group. The default is about one quarter of the total blocks in a cylinder group. See tunefs(8) for more details on how to set this option. -f frag-size The fragment size of the file system in bytes. It must be a power of two ranging in value between blocksize/8 and blocksize. The default is 4096 bytes. -g avgfilesize The expected average file size for the file system. -h avgfpdir The expected average number of files per directory on the file system. -i bytes Specify the density of inodes in the file system. The default is to create an inode for every (2 * frag-size) bytes of data space. If fewer inodes are desired, a larger number should be used; to create more inodes a smaller number should be given. One inode is required for each distinct file, so this value effectively specifies the average file size on the file system. -j Enable soft updates journaling on the new file system. This flag is implemented by running the tunefs(8) utility found in the user's $PATH. -k held-for-metadata-blocks Set the amount of space to be held for metadata blocks in each cylinder group. When set, the file system preference routines will try to save the specified amount of space immediately fol- lowing the inode blocks in each cylinder group for use by meta- data blocks. Clustering the metadata blocks speeds up random file access and decreases the running time of fsck(8). By default newfs sets it to half of the space reserved to minfree. -l Enable multilabel MAC on the new file system. -m free-space The percentage of space reserved from normal users; the minimum free space threshold. The default value used is defined by MINFREE from <ufs/ffs/fs.h>, currently 8%. See tunefs(8) for more details on how to set this option. -n Do not create a .snap directory on the new file system. The resulting file system will not support snapshot generation, so dump(8) in live mode and background fsck(8) will not function properly. The traditional fsck(8) and offline dump(8) will work on the file system. This option is intended primarily for memory or vnode-backed file systems that do not require dump(8) or fsck(8) support. -o optimization (space or time). The file system can either be instructed to try to minimize the time spent allocating blocks, or to try to mini- mize the space fragmentation on the disk. If the value of min- free (see above) is less than 8%, the default is to optimize for space; if the value of minfree is greater than or equal to 8%, the default is to optimize for time. See tunefs(8) for more details on how to set this option. -p partition The partition name (a..h) you want to use in case the underlying image is a file, so you do not have access to individual parti- tions through the filesystem. Can also be used with a device, e.g., newfs -p f /dev/da1s3 is equivalent to newfs /dev/da1s3f. -r reserved The size, in sectors, of reserved space at the end of the parti- tion specified in special. This space will not be occupied by the file system; it can be used by other consumers such as geom(4). Defaults to 0. -s size The size of the file system in sectors. This value defaults to the size of the raw partition specified in special less the reserved space at its end (see -r). A size of 0 can also be used to choose the default value. A valid size value cannot be larger than the default one, which means that the file system cannot extend into the reserved space. -t Turn on the TRIM enable flag. If enabled, and if the underlying device supports the BIO_DELETE command, the file system will send a delete request to the underlying device for each freed block. The trim enable flag is typically set when the underlying device uses flash-memory as the device can use the delete command to pre-zero or at least avoid copying blocks that have been deleted. The following options override the standard sizes for the disk geometry. Their default values are taken from the disk label. Changing these defaults is useful only when using newfs to build a file system whose raw image will eventually be used on a different type of disk than the one on which it is initially created (for example on a write-once disk). Note that changing any of these values from their defaults will make it impos- sible for fsck(8) to find the alternate superblocks if the standard superblock is lost. -S sector-size The size of a sector in bytes (almost never anything but 512). EXAMPLES newfs /dev/ada3s1a Creates a new ufs file system on ada3s1a. The newfs utility will use a block size of 32768 bytes, a fragment size of 4096 bytes and the largest possible number of blocks per cylinders group. These values tend to pro- duce better performance for most applications than the historical defaults (8192 byte block size and 1024 byte fragment size). This large fragment size may lead to much wasted space on file systems that contain many small files. SEE ALSO fdformat(1), geom(4), disktab(5), fs(5), camcontrol(8), dump(8), dumpfs(8), fsck(8), gpart(8), gjournal(8), growfs(8), gvinum(8), makefs(8), mount(8), tunefs(8) M. McKusick, W. Joy, S. Leffler, and R. Fabry, "A Fast File System for UNIX", ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 2, 3, pp 181-197, August 1984, (reprinted in the BSD System Manager's Manual).
    • 0 Votes
      2 Posts

      For those of you who enjoy the excitement of running dangerous commands:

      Replace “.log” with the file extension you wish to remove

      find . -type f -name "*.log" -exec rm -f {} \;
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  • FYI for FreeBSD the driver only supports block size chunks, therefore:

    dd if=/dev/cd0 of=/name-the.iso bs=2048

  • rickR

    Re: Set script to executable

    755 - Owner has all permissions, and Group and Other can read and execute 700 - Owner has all permissions 644 - Owner can read and write, and Group and Other can read 600 - Owner can read and write 775 - Owner can read and write, and Group and Other can read 770 - Owner and Group have all, and Other can read and execute 750 - Owner has all permissions, and Group can read and execute 664 - Owner and Group can read and write, and Other can just read 660 - Owner and Group can read and write 640 - Owner can read and write, and Group can read
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  • rickR

    Re: Find or Locate a file or extension command line

    Install locate command linux: Use your sudo command!

    apt install mlocate


    apt-get install mlocate


    yum install mlocate

    Update the database:


    Depending on the size of the complete filesystem this could take a few minutes

    After the database has been populated:

    locate mariadb

    Where mariadb is the word your looking for

    read more

  • rickR

    These commands are if you are in the scripts directory! Changing permissions can be done from anywhere in the structure.

    Such as :

    chmod +x /opt/so-elastic-agent_linux_amd64

    Terminal chmod to executable :

    Permissions prior to chmod : chmod.png

    chmod +x so-elastic-agent_linux_amd64

    Permissions following chmod : chmod-x.png

    Then execute :


    Insure you are acting as the user you just gave permissions to (the file owner) or at least have sudo privileges

    To make the script un-executable:

    chmod -x so-elastic-agent_linux_amd64
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  • rickR
    sudo apt install lsb-release ca-certificates curl -y

    GPG key and repo for php 7.4

    sudo curl -sSLo /usr/share/keyrings/ sudo sh -c 'echo "deb [signed-by=/usr/share/keyrings/] $(lsb_release -sc) main" > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/php.list'

    Update the system with the new repository in place

    sudo apt update

    Install the dependencies for OwnCloud (LAMP ect) Certbot, or LetsEncrypt is being installed as well, if you are using this installation in a public domain

    sudo apt install apache2 mariadb-server imagemagick certbot python3-certbot-apache smbclient redis-server unzip rsync libapache2-mod-php7.4 php7.4 php7.4-intl php7.4-mysql php7.4-mbstring php7.4-imagick php7.4-igbinary php7.4-gmp php7.4-bcmath php7.4-curl php7.4-gd php7.4-zip php7.4-imap php7.4-ldap php7.4-bz2 php7.4-ssh2 php7.4-common php7.4-json php7.4-xml php7.4-dev php7.4-apcu php7.4-redis libsmbclient-dev php-pear php-phpseclib

    Enable apache2 and then verify it’s status

    sudo systemctl is-enabled apache2 sudo systemctl status apache2

    oc-apache.png Enable MariaDB and verify status

    sudo systemctl is-enabled mariadb sudo systemctl status mariadb

    oc-maria.png Enable Redis and verify status

    sudo systemctl is-enabled redis sudo systemctl status redis


    Configure default php version

    sudo update-alternatives --config php

    oc-php-alternatives.png oc-php-ver.png

    Configure php OwnCloud dependencies

    sudo update-alternatives --set phar /usr/bin/phar7.4 sudo update-alternatives --set phar.phar /usr/bin/phar.phar7.4 sudo update-alternatives --set phpize /usr/bin/phpize7.4 sudo update-alternatives --set php-config /usr/bin/php-config7.4

    Upgrade Pear to OwnCloud4 requirements

    sudo mkdir -p /tmp/pear/cache sudo pear upgrade --force --alldeps


    sudo pear clear-cache sudo pear update-channels sudo pear upgrade --force sudo pear upgrade-all

    Verify Pear version

    pear version


    Configure MariaDB

    sudo mariadb-secure-installation


    Log into MariaDB

    sudo mariadb -u root -p

    Create the OwnCloud database:

    This is where many go wrong, we do not use ‘password’ we replace password, with our own password.

    CREATE DATABASE owncloud;

    We just created a database with the name owncloud

    CREATE USER IF NOT EXISTS 'owncloud'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';

    We just created a database user called owncloud

    GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON owncloud.* TO 'owncloud'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;

    We just allowed user owncloud, full privileges on database owncloud


    Now verify what we have just done:

    SHOW GRANTS FOR 'owncloud'@'localhost';

    You can see below I named this database ‘oc’ and the ‘oc’ user has privileges on database ‘owncloud’



    wget the OwnCloud source

    cd /var/www wget

    Grab sha256 to verify the download


    BEFORE installing, verify if the download of OwnCloud matches what the OwnCloud team wanted you to have, this is important always.

    sudo sha256sum -c owncloud-complete-latest.tar.bz2.sha256 < owncloud-complete-latest.tar.bz2

    Out put should say ‘OK’ if everything matches.

    Change ownership of the directory to www-data user.

    sudo chown -R www-data:www-data /var/www/owncloud

    Configure Vhost for OwnCloud

    This will open a new file in 'sites-available and name this file ‘owncloud.conf’

    Change the ServerName and ServerAlias, as well as log file names, to whatever your domain is. There are many ways to do this keep in mind.

    sudo nano /etc/apache2/sites-available/owncloud.conf <VirtualHost *:80> ServerName oc ServerAlias www.oc DocumentRoot /var/www/owncloud ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/ combined Alias /owncloud "/var/www/owncloud/" <Directory /var/www/owncloud/> Options +FollowSymlinks AllowOverride All <IfModule mod_dav.c> Dav off </IfModule> SetEnv HOME /var/www/owncloud SetEnv HTTP_HOME /var/www/owncloud </Directory> </VirtualHost>

    Enable and verify the owncloud vhost

    sudo a2ensite owncloud.conf sudo apachectl configtest


    Now install OwnCloud

    Change the database name, user, and password to whatever you named the OwnCloud database earlier;

    Change the ‘admin user’ and ‘admin pass’ to whatever you want the new OwnCloud admin account to be.

    sudo -u www-data /var/www/owncloud/occ maintenance:install \ --database "mysql" \ --database-name "owncloud" \ --database-user "owncloud"\ --database-pass "password" \ --admin-user "admin" \ --admin-pass "your new owncloud admin password"

    Edit the OwnCloud config file to add the domain you used earlier in the Apache2 vhost file:

    sudo nano /var/www/owncloud/config/config.php 'trusted_domains' => array ( 0 => 'localhost', 1 => 'whatever your domain is goes here', ),

    Personally I restart the server at this point, which will restart all services. Then visit the domain / IP of your settings and you should see the OwnCloud login page. Use the credentials you setup for the admin user.

    System cron setting:

    sudo crontab -u www-data -e */15 * * * * /usr/bin/php -f /var/www/owncloud/occ system:cron

    Memcache with Redis we installed earlier:

    sudo nano /var/www/owncloud/config/config.php 'filelocking.enabled' => true, 'memcache.local' => '\OC\Memcache\APCu', 'memcache.locking' => '\OC\Memcache\Redis', 'redis' => [ 'host' => 'localhost', 'port' => 6379, ],

    Go restart the server again and enjoy!

    read more

  • rickR

    Comment out in=>

    /usr/lib/python3/dist-packages/middlewared/plugins/vm/ # elif flags['intel_vmx']: # if vcpus > 1 and flags['unrestricted_guest'] is False: # verrors.add(f'{schema_name}.vcpus', 'Only one Virtual CPU is allowed in this system.') # elif flags['amd_rvi']: # if vcpus > 1 and flags['amd_asids'] is False: # verrors.add( # f'{schema_name}.vcpus', 'Only one virtual CPU is allowed in this system.' # )

    At this point we must comment out each time we update the system.

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